Failure Mechanisms of GaN Metal–Semiconductor–Metal Photodetectors After Stressing
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Model Parameters
Name Description Parameter Type Value Units View Sub-Model
JDark current of MSM PDsVariableampere 
A*nEffective Richardson constantConstant (Testing Req.)Not Specified 
A*pEffective Richardson constantConstant (Testing Req.)Not Specified 
Φn1Electron barrier height at the cathodeVariableNot Specified 
Φp2Hole barrier height at the anodeVariableNot Specified 
kBoltzman’s constantConstant (Physical)Not Specified 
TTemperatureVariableKelvin 
ΔΦn1Image force lowering term at the cathodeVariableNot Specified 
ΔΦp2Image force lowering term at the anodeVariableNot Specified 

Failure Mechanism

Component / Technology Types

Characteristics
Title Description
Dark CurrentThe increasing dark current originates from both the barrier-height shrinkage and the crystal-quality decline.
Crystal Quality DecayThe long-duration and high-current stress causes the most crystal quality decay in GaN films.
Barrier HeightThe barrier height of the TiW/GaN interface shrinks as the stress time increases.
Model DescriptionThis model was developed from a study to address the reliability of GaN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors (PDs), which is an important factor in determining the commercial success of these devices. More specifically, this study stressed GaN MSM PDs with TiW electrodes under high temperatures and high injected currents.

Assumptions
Title Description
ElectrodesIt is assumed that the two electrodes are symmetrical in barrier height and that surface transport can be neglected.
Simulation AccuracyTo improve the simulation accuracy, dark current is set at 15 V to guarantee that the applied voltage is greater than the flatband voltage. The dark current is presumably the result of thermionic emission at 15-V bias.

Limitations
Title Description
Technology TypeThis model was developed specifically for GaN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors (PDs) with TiW electrodes. TiW is considered by many to be a replacement candidate for indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes (for UV applications), as scientific predictions indicate that indium mining will decrease sharply in the next 10 years.

Constraints
Title Description
TemperatureTwo stress temperatures were used in this experiment: 298 and 373 K.
Current Stress ConditionsThree current stress conditions were used in this experiment: 5, 10, 15 mA. The critical current level of 15 mA was determined to prevent overstressing the devices.

Uncertainty Limits
Type Uncertainty
N/AN/A

Data or Information Needed from Outside Sources
Category Source Description
Scaling FactorUserEffective Richardson's constants (A*n, A*p)

Bibliographic Citation
Published Status Source Type Title Authors
PublishedArticle/PaperFailure Mechanisms of GaN Metal–Semiconductor–Metal Photodetectors After StressingY Z Chiou
Abstract/Summary
This paper proposes a new method of analyzing the reliability of GaN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors (PDs). This paper analyzes and characterizes the reliability of GaN MSM PDs with TiW electrodes under different stressing conditions. Controlling the temperature and injection current makes it possible to stress the device and evaluate its characteristics after stressing. Results show that the dark current and responsivity of PDs change with the aging temperature and current. The aging current density is a dominant factor in reliability. This paper also conducts failure analysis to clarify the PD failure mechanisms. Optical microscope inspection shows that burned-fail electrodes are a major cause of failure. Photoluminance analysis shows that the decline of GaN crystal quality is another cause of failure.
Report # Publication Name Volume # Publisher Name
N/AIEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability10-1N/A
Publication Date Pages Source URL Copyright Info
2010-03-0182-86http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=5308289&tag=1IEEE

Technical Point of Contact (PoC)
Y Z Chiou
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WARP-ADMIN
Jan 9 at 11:45 am
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