FMD-2013 is the third sequel in a series of
Reliability Information Analysis Center (RIAC)
databooks that contain Failure Mode and Mechanism Distribution data.
It updates the 1997 Edition of the databook,
providing an expanded compendium of
failure mode/mechanism data for electronic,
electromechanical and mechanical parts, components and assemblies.
Knowledge of part failure trends is necessary to
successfully perform many types of reliability analyses
such as Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA).
Quantification of the relative probability of occurrence
for each potential failure mode (failure mode distribution)
for a given part type is essential for the performance of a
Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA).
This new 3-day course, currently available to teach on-site, provides a complete
overview of the reliability growth process associated with robust design and
test techniques. It defines the basic concepts of reliability growth and
illustrates how these concepts can be most effectively applied using a variety of
design and test methods. Topics covered include reliability growth management,
reliability growth through design (FMEA/FMECA, FTA, Reliability Physics/Physics of Failure,
Accelerated Life Testing, and Orthogonal Defect Classification for Software) and
reliability growth through test (FRACAS; reliability planning, tracking and projection models).
The course also provides unique and innovative approaches that measure,
quantify and improve the effectiveness of Design for Reliability (DFR) activities.
The RIAC Desk Reference offers a collection of RIAC publications in addition helpful tools and articles to help you better understanding all aspects of Reliability, Maintainability, Quality, Supportability and Interoperability (RMQSI).
This 6 part series is designed for use in both the government and private sectors.
It addresses products ranging from completely new commercial consumer products to highly specialized military systems.
217Plus is the long awaited update of the Center's commitment to develop a replacement prediction methodology for MIL-HDBK-217 "Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment," the widely used approach abandoned by the Government on 1995.
217Plus implements the models presented in the "Handbook of 217Plus™ Reliability Prediction Models".
REPERTOIRE is the RIAC's set of five on-line interactive reliability engineering training courses developed around the American Society for Quality (ASQ) body of knowledge for the Certified Reliability Engineer's (CRE) exam. Whether you are preparing for the CRE exam or just need basic training in reliability, you'll like the convenience of training on your own schedule, at your own pace.
The complete set of courses contains approximately thirty hours of narrated training, hundreds of quiz questions, and interactive exercises. The courses are:
The On-Line Edition of the REPERTOIRE 5-module set offers buyers a free download of the QuART PRO software ($189 value), which is a suite of commonly used and easily accessed tools to support reliability engineers and practitioners.
This new 3-day course, currently available to teach on-site, provides a complete overview of the reliability growth process associated with robust design and test techniques. It defines the basic concepts of reliability growth and illustrates how these concepts can be most effectively applied using a variety of design and test methods. Topics covered include reliability growth management, reliability growth through design (FMEA/FMECA, FTA, Reliability Physics/Physics of Failure, Accelerated Life Testing, and Orthogonal Defect Classification for Software) and reliability growth through test (FRACAS; reliability planning, tracking and projection models). The course also provides unique and innovative approaches that measure, quantify and improve the effectiveness of Design for Reliability (DFR) activities.
Concerns with the limited supply of non-renewable resources form the impetus for the intense private, national and international efforts currently being applied toward the development of so-called ‘green’ technologies. There is the expectation that these technologies will be utilized in a manner that is compatible with the environment. The term ‘green technology’ has been commonly applied to a wide array of technologies and is often associated with renewable and/or sustainable energy sources, higher efficiency products, and low-toxicity/high re-use materials, where ‘green’ is meant to signify an intended harmony with nature. In the strictest interpretation, the term ‘green technology’ should only be applied to those technologies which present no negative impact on the environment; however few technologies can meet this standard.
The objective of the “Impact of ‘Green’ Technologies on System Reliability” Handbook is to identify the reliability considerations related to key green power generating technologies (solar, wind and geothermal), and to present methodologies and/or models useful in the identification and mitigation of reliability risks. Each topic is prefaced with a brief overview of the current technology and its intended applications, such that consequences of unreliable operation can be better appreciated. Where applicable, each topic includes a preview of key activities in the research and development of ‘next generation’ versions of the technology.
In the recent history of engineering, extensive efforts have been placed on developing approaches to predict the reliability and expected life of mechanical parts and systems. While the available work is extensive, it often focuses upon narrow aspects or single approaches to reliability modeling. As such, it is difficult for an engineer with little or no experience in reliability to apply these methods to real-life situations. This document is specifically targeted to address this problem, outlining the competing approaches to part reliabiltiy predictions, including Statistical Analysis of relevent failure data, Physics of Failure modeling, Empirical Failure Models and Data, and other less common but acceptable methods. Furthermore, the document also describes the mechanical reliability process, including the role of these predictions and other necessary testing and analyses, for the production of reliable mechanical systems.
Historically, the reliability growth process has been thought of, and treated as, a reactive approach to growing reliability based on failures “discovered” during testing or, most unfortunately, once a system/product has been delivered to a customer. As a result, many reliability growth models are predicated on starting the reliability growth process at test time “zero”, with some initial level of reliability (usually in the context of a time-based measure such as Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)). Time “zero” represents the start of testing, and the initial reliability of the test item is based on its inherent design. The problem with this approach, still predominant today, is that it ignores opportunities to grow reliability during the design of a system or product, i.e., opportunities to go into reliability growth testing with a higher initial inherent reliability at time zero.
In addition to the traditional approaches to reliability growth during test, this book explores the activities and opportunities that can be leveraged to promote and achieve reliability growth during the design phase of the overall system life cycle. The ability to do so as part of an integrated, proactive design environment has significant implications for developing and delivering reliable items quickly, on time and within budget.
This book offers new definitions of how failures can be characterized, and how those new definitions can be used to develop metrics that will quantify how effective a Design for Reliability (DFR) process is in (1) identifying failure modes and (2) mitigating their root failure causes. Reliability growth can only occur in the presence of both elements.
Reliability Engineers are required to combine a practical understanding of material science and engineering with statistics. The reliability engineer’s understanding of statistics is focused on the practical application of a wide variety of accepted statistical methods. Most reliability texts provide only a basic introduction to probability distributions or only provide a detailed reference to few distributions. Detailed statistician texts provide theoretical detail which is outside the scope of likely reliability engineering tasks. As such, the objective of this book is to provide a single reference text of closed-form probability formulas and approximations used in reliability engineering.
This book, developed by the University of Maryland Center for Risk and Reliability, published by the RIAC, and used as a supplemental reference book in courses offered by the University of Maryland, provides details on 22 probability distributions. Each distribution section provides a graphical visualization and formulas for distribution parameters, along with distribution formulas. Common statistics such as moments and percentile formulas are followed by likelihood functions and, in many cases, the derivation of maximum likelihood estimates. Bayesian non-informative and conjugate priors are provided, followed by a discussion on the distribution characteristics and applications in reliability engineering. Each section is concluded with online and hardcopy references which can provide further information, followed by the relationship to other distributions.
The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) published the new MIL-HDBK-189C, “Reliability Growth Management,” which is critical for implementing the new Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and Army reliability policies.
Reliability growth management procedures have been developed to improve the reliability of Department of Defense (DoD) weapon systems. Reliability growth techniques enable acquisition personnel to plan, evaluate and control the reliability of a system during its development stage. The reliability growth concepts and methodologies have evolved over the last few decades by actual applications to military systems. Through these applications, reliability growth management technology has been developed to the point where considerable payoffs in system reliability improvement and cost reduction can be achieved.
Reliability growth encompasses 3 areas: planning (prior to test data), tracking (using test data), and projection (using test data and applying fix effectiveness factors). Thirty years of lessons learned has culminated in the recent development of several models in each of these areas. Collectively these reliability growth models are referred to as the AMSAA Visual Growth Suite and are available free of charge to US government personnel and their supporting contractors.
One of the most significant models to note is the Planning Model Based on Projection Methodology (PM2). It develops a system-level reliability growth planning curve that incorporates the developmental test schedule and corrective action strategy. Benefits include risk reduction, construction of feasible reliability test programs, and bridging the gap between engineering efforts and program constraints with the overall reliability program.
AMSAA published MIL-HDBK-189C, “Reliability Growth Management,” in June 2011 to reflect recent development of reliability growth concepts and methodologies based on applications to military systems. Comments from Reliability Subject Matter Experts within the Army, Navy and Air Force were incorporated. The updated handbook supports new OSD and Army reliability policies and was posted to the Acquisition Streamlining and Standardization Information System (ASSIST) database for use by all of DoD.
Lisa I. Carroll
Operations Research Analyst, AMSAA
392 Hopkins Road
APG, MD 21005-5071
Lisa Carroll is a member of the Reliability Analysis Team at the U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity. She earned her bachelor’s degree in Mathematics at Albright College in Pennsylvania and her master’s degree in Statistics at the University of Delaware.
The objective of this report is to highlight the impact of long-term aging effects on parts, assemblies and equipments by investigating characteristics of aging as they impact specific material classes. The report is broken down into the following sections:
Section 2 addresses general environmental design considerations for aging during in-service conditions
Section 3 discusses aging factors as they relate to ferrous and non-ferrous metals
Section 4 provides an overview of aging as it applies to polymer materials
Section 5 covers general reliability design considerations and appropriate tasks/techniques
Currently, the Electronic PDF version is available for download ($40 USD). The hardcopy version will be available within the next few weeks.
Directive-Type Memorandum (DTM) 11-003, "Reliability Analysis, Planning, Tracking, and Reporting" was issued March 21, 2011, and is consistent with the direction of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics to immediately enhance reliability in the acquisition process, and with recent Secretary of Defense direction to improve the efficiency of the Defense acquisition system. It (a) amplifies procedures contained in DoDI 5000.02 “Operation of the Defense Acquisition System,” dated December 8, 2008, (b) is designed to improve reliability analysis, planning, tracking, and reporting, (c) institutionalizes reliability planning methods and reporting requirements timed to key acquisition activities to monitor reliability growth, (d) is effective upon its publication to the DoD Issuances Website and (e) shall be incorporated into DoDI 5000.02.
Using Availability Analysis to Reduce Total Cost of Ownership
Due to a Printer error, the hardcopy of the 2Q 2010 RIAC Journal contains an error in Table 2 of the article "Using Availability Analysis to Reduce Total Cost of Ownership" by Mr. Bill Lycette of Agilent Technologies. The PDF version of the article is correct, and can be downloaded here.
The RIAC apologizes to our readers for any inconvenience that this may cause, and we are working with the Printer to resolve the error in the hardcopy of the Journal.
Few engineering techniques have caused as much controversy in the last several decades as the topic of reliability prediction. One of the primary reasons for this is the stochastic nature of reliability. Whereas many engineering disciplines are governed by deterministic processes, reliability is governed by a complex interaction of stochastic processes. As a result, the metrics of interest in other engineering disciplines are generally much more quantifiable by their very nature. While there is always a stochastic element in any engineering model, the topic of reliability quantification must address its extreme stochastic nature.
The intent of this book is to provide guidance on reliability modeling techniques that can be used to quantify the reliability of a product or system. In this context, reliability modeling is the process of constructing a mathematical model that is used to estimate the reliability characteristics of an item. This book reviews possible approaches, summarizes their advantages and disadvantages, and provides guidance on selecting an appropriate methodology based on specific goals and constraints.
The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) has recently developed a set of Reliability Growth tools and a Reliability Program Scorecard. The tools are available at no charge for US government personnel and government contractors. The reliability growth tools are the latest evolution of the AMSAA reliability growth suite and include the new PM2 reliability growth planning model. The reliability growth planning, tracking, and projection models are easy to use and help the user by performing multiple data checks. The AMSAA reliability scorecard can be applied to assess a system's reliability program. The reliability scorecard provides a quantitative risk score and identifies strengths and weaknesses across eight categories and 40 elements. If you are interested in obtaining the reliability growth models and the reliability scorecard, please click on the link below and enter the requested information.
In June 2007, the U.S. Department of the Navy, Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) asked
the Bureau of Industry and Security's (BIS) Office of Technology Evaluation (OTE) to conduct a
defense industrial base assessment of counterfeit electronics. NAVAIR suspected that an
increasing number of counterfeit/defective electronics were infiltrating the DoD supply chain
and affecting weapon system reliability.
This study provides (1) statistics on the extent of the infiltration of counterfeits
into U.S. defense and industrial supply chains, (2) an understanding of industry and
government practices that contribute to the problem, and (3) identification of best practices and
recommendations for handling and preventing counterfeit electronics.
On 24 November 2009, the new Director, Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E), Dr. J. Michael Gilmour, issued a 5-page Memorandum that outlined his expectation that each individual in DOT&E will work to provide rigorous, objective, and clear information supporting the following initiatives:
Field new capability rapidly
Engage early to improve requirements
Integrate developmental, live fire, and operational testing
Substantially improve suitability before Initial Operational Test & Evaluation (lOT&E)
The Memorandum expands on the last bullet to place explicit and forceful emphasis on proactive and robust reliability program and reliability growth/software failure profile assessments prior to Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E).
The Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Staff collaborated on the Reliability, Availability, Maintainability-Cost (RAM-C) Report Manual to assist combat developers, project managers, and engineers to design RAM into systems early in a program. The manual supports life cycle implementation of the Sustainment metric, for which the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) issued new guidance in May 2007. The Sustainment metric consists of an Availability Key Performance Parameter (KPP) and two supporting Key Systems Attributes (KSAs): Reliability and Ownership Cost. The CJCS guidance requires programs under development to create a balance between RAM performance in the field and the related costs of providing that performance - a distinct paradigm shift within the acquisition community that, once fully implemented, should result in improved value for major acquisition programs.
“A Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Developmental Test and Evaluation (DT&E) was convened in the summer of 2007 to investigate the causal factors for the high percentage of
programs entering Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) in recent years which have been evaluated as both not operationally effective and not operationally suitable. As part of their Final Report (/pdfs/DSB-Rpt-DTE-May2008.pdf), released in late-May 2008, the Task Force identified several key findings and made critical recommendations in a number of areas. Section E of the report (page 42), states:
“Too often COTS which do not meet the application requirements are used. This leads to higher than anticipated failure rates and poor system mission reliability. Program managers must ensure that COTS components are able to operate satisfactorily in military mission environments. Two excellent detailed guidance manuals for the use of COTS items are:
“Selection of Equipment to Leverage Commercial Technology (SELECT) User Manual”, by David Nicholls, David Clark (Reliability Analysis Center - now the Reliability Information Analysis Center [RIAC], June 1998)”
“Evaluating the Reliability of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Items” by Ned H. Criscimagna (Reliability Information Analysis Center, August 1999).”
The release of the previously unavailable SELECT Final Report, now published as the RIAC product “The Selection of Equipment to Leverage Commercial Technology (SELECT) - A Methodology for Acquiring Reliable COTS Products” is structured such that it is not necessary to own the SELECT software tool in order to successfully apply the SELECT methodology. Appendices E through H contain all of the logic, equations, weighting and scoring rationale, and other factors required to apply the SELECT methodology manually, or to allow incorporation of the methodology into the users own spreadsheet applications. We've bundled the SELECT software, however, with both the Hardcopy and Download versions of the report at no extra charge.”
The purpose of the DoD Defense Acquisition Guidebook is to provide members of the DoD Acquisition Community and its industry partners with a reference to DoD policy and discretionary best practice. The RIAC has enhanced the November 2006 PDF Version of the Guidebook, currently available from the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) website, by adding a comprehensive bookmarked outline to aid in navigation. The RIAC-enhanced version can be downloaded from here. The enhanced version retains all of the hyperlinks incorporated into the DAU PDF versions.
It should be noted that, effective 8 December 2008, a new DoD Instruction 5000.02 was issued that cancels DoD Instruction 5000.2, dated 12 May 2003. The Defense Acquisition Guidebook is currently in revision to reflect the new DoDI 5000.02. For the interim, all links in the Guidebook to the cancelled DoDI 5000.2 are redirected to the PDF Version of the DoDI 5000.02. Upon its release, the revised Guidebook will include updated links to the correct sections and specific pages of the new DoDI 5000.02. When the revised Guidebook is released, RIAC will make it available for download.
The Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force was asked to assess, from a Test and Evaluation (T&E) perspective, OSD organizational roles and responsibilities; policy and practices in oversight of acquisition programs; assess changes required to establish statutory authority for OSD DT&E oversight; and assess Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) failures due to lack of Operational Suitability. The Final Report provides finding and recommendations addressing broader programmatic issues stemming from systemic changes to the acquisition process. The report also presents findings and recommendations on program structure, requirements definition, contractual performance requirements, alignment of DoD terminology with systems engineering procedures, Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) products, and Systems of Systems (SoS). The RIAC "Selection of Equipment to Leverage Commercial Technology" (SELECT) work was cited as 'excellent detailed guidance' for the use of COTS items.
In this Guidebook, the interoperability of military command, control and communication (C3) systems and data networks are investigated to provide a better understanding of the standards, implementation, acquisition and operation of interoperable systems.
REPERTOIRE, the 5 module set of reliability training courses is now available through the RIAC either on-line or on DVD. Note: REPERTOIRE on DVD does not contain the on-line quizzes that are in the web-based version.
Introduction to Maintainability Engineering On-Line Training Course
RIAC's new Introduction to Maintainability Engineering course covers basic concepts, definitions, elements of a comprehensive maintainability program, mathematical foundations, maintainability design and verification approaches.
On-Line training lets you learn at your own pace, anywhere, anytime, and save lots of money on travel expenses
The Reliability Information Analysis Center (RIAC) is the Department of Defense (DoD) chartered Center of Excellence in the fields of Reliability, Maintainability, Quality, Supportability, and Interoperability.